To be able to continue easily in explanation of crisis of modernity, I dare to explain the theory of natural principles first. Sometimes, the summary of natural principles is called natural order. I will explain how this natural order is divided in cosmic order which cannot be influenced by man and which is superior to humans; and general order to which humans are immediately subordinate, but which they can influence at the same time.
Ontological theory of natural principles
Ontology is a science about being (existence). Individual existences are part of the scope of being. Usually, these are terms which we know from common language as substantives either real or abstract; both “shoe” and “mystery” count as existences. Existences are part of world which can be perceived and understood (sometimes expressed as the real world). Ontology strives to sort them in categories and explores relationships between them.
Natural order has always been perceived by people who understood that nature is simply controlled somehow and individual phenomenons follow some rules. Gradually, people figured out that there are some societal rules. Social order then became some sort of epitome of natural order. To explain these principles I am using philosophy derived from Platon (see 4, 5, 20), as specified by N Hartman (see 77), as per which being (existence) is divided into real and ideal. Real being exists in time or space and is limited in time or space; and can change its denominations or position over time. Ideal being is constant, timeless, and not dependent on space; and does not change its denominations such quality, quantity, or size. Both beings can exist independently on each other and do not have to be in interaction, even though ideal being is usually observable only when in interaction with activities of a real being.
Right in the beginning I am going to explain that real being does not correspond with material world and ideal being is not an equivalent of spiritual world (see 20, 77). Many non-material beings add up to a real being (dependence, mystery, enlightenment, adaptability, or emancipation) which changes its denominations in time. On the other hand there are beings that are of material essence but follow principles of an ideal being. This is certainly initial essence of materie, some sort of material energy which looses or gains nothing, only changes its forms (see physical laws on preservation of matter and energy). Also, the essence of characteristics of living creatures is a part of ideal being. Space and time are principles of ideal being as well, which have its ideal dimension and at the same time are normal part of life and in concrete examples they transform into real being, such as the space of a room and time for lunch. This applies to many vales of human spiritual life, especially freedom, faith, equality of people, and so on; many beings have two faces: real and ideal. The ideal one is an essence; a transcendentally perceived value; but real is the one which a man encounters in practice.
Existences (concepts, facts, things) of an ideal being are called here natural principles. Natural principles include everything what we call natural laws (mathematics, laws of physics, laws of human society, and laws of nature); averything what exists without any dependence on human consciousness and individual human existence but influences human existence from outside. If this concerns specially and principially rules controlling a specific activity, natural principles can be called: natural relations. We all know natural principles; these are no tautology; and life sciences are no unproven ideology based on faith. Their functionality was many times proven by practice.
Real being endorses whole material world and also an individual human with his thinking, creations, and most of his logical concepts. Whilst ideal being is determined (it is constant and independent); real being, uncontrolled by an ideal one, is chaotic, unpredictable, and random; is variable in space and time and usually lacks its own control element in these categories. Material beings are still part of material energy in a certain given way adjusted to space; nonetheless, individually they are part of real being. World does not exist without real beings and there would be nothing what a man could perceive with his senses and comprehend with his wisdom. Ideal beings cannot replace real world. Real beings can limitedly exist without ideal ones.
Relationship between ideal and real beings is given by interaction in which rules of ideal existence control behavior of real beings; however, living creatures do have their own will which is especially evident in humans and have some limited capacity to evade ideal being and choose between individual beings through its own real projects. Despite this, existences of ideal beings are usually very apparent and demarcated; and can be recognized at least in the part which is accessible to man. Saying this I do not mean that humans already learned everything what they could learn but there are certainly existences he will never understand in detail; some are vaguely known to him and about others he has no suspicion.
Good example of a relationship between ideal and real world is the rule on angles in a triangle. In all triangles, the sum of angles adds up to 180°. If a triangle exists, this rule applies to it, it determines a triangle, cannot be changed, and exists independently on human will. The only way how to eliminate existence of ideal being (natural principle, cosmic principle) is to stop using triangles. Similar rules apply in natural selection laws in live nature and its derivative – market competition. Market mechanism is characteristic for rules which are part of ideal being. If conditions for functional market arise (independent producers of goods and customers in need of the goods), market immediately starts functioning. Market is then subject to these laws, and human will only manifests within this mechanism with certain level of freedom; otherwise a man has no control over market. Once conditions for function of a market lapse, and there is e.g. just one manufacturer left, then laws of ideal being stop functioning; and usually, if no rules of an ideal being are introduced, some non-functionality arises.
It is good when a man explores ideal beings and adjusts to it, and utilizes is providing he is able to comprehend it correctly. It is not correct when a man does not respect laws of this being (natural principles). That is why scientific, technological, and medical excellence are the result of research of existences of an ideal being and realization of projects based on it. Whilst in the field of sociology and politology there is pursuit for lack of respect of laws of ideal being, typical examples being communist regime but also modernistic liberalism; human society is exposed to chaos, random events, and most importantly, wrong direction of development. I call this detachment from respecting laws of an ideal being process of unnaturalness as it does not respect natural principles; and as I will explain further, this was caused by social phenomenon which I call disjunction.
Another example of a relationship between ideal and real being is a combustion engine. Termodynamic laws are part of ideal existence and are utilized in construction of a combustion engine which creates technical conditions for their application. Ideal existence (thermodynamic laws) together with real one (material realization of an engine) form a mechanism, a phenomenon; which serves a human because he understood the principles and utilized them. Engine is temporary and limited in space but the principles continue to exist. Another example is a family which functions on relationship between ideal and real existence. Emotive relationships between husband and wife exist, such as sexual desire and love which are natural principles. These relationships do require certain conditions in terms of real existence such as independent living arrangements and some material security; and mental conditions as well to allow formation of family with children through physical activity of both partners. Another example: democracy is formed by principles of ideal existence; but only if the right conditions in the domain of real existence are fulfilled; that means free citizens with some minimal level of wealth and personal independence; the right electoral system; traditional order; moral environment; and dialectical antagonist poles – government and opposition.
Dynamically functioning mechanisms which are controlled by rules of ideal existence and at the same time consist of real beings are called natural mechanisms. This is what I outlined in the previous paragraph (engine, family, or democracy), and many others (e.g. market). Those which have societal character are usually founded on natural principle of balance and other natural laws. Higher mechanisms are then based on them, e.g. a society or sets of naturalness. Natural mechanisms follow rules which are ideally given and participants inside cannot change them. From the outside, mechanism can only be used or not used; however, this does not apply to cosmic principles, see further in text.
Rules which utilize essence of human existence are part of ideal being; those which are part of fundamental human characteristics, and are universally inherent to all people. This is principially true, just like with a triangle and its inner angles; if a triangle is a triangle and is not deformed somehow. Then rules apply which are founded on human characteristics, such as market rules, foundation of families, behavior to other people under certain circumstances, and so on); just like the laws on behavior of of angles in a triangle or thermodynamic laws in combustion engine. If some of these conditions are not fulfilled, e.g. instincts for foundation of families are culturally overshadowed by different experiences and non-existence of material conditions and thus rules for ideal existence for formation of families do not apply; this can be compared to an example of an ill-fitting cylinder of an engine head which makes thermodynamic laws for this engine obsolete. Despite this, certain level of ill-fitting is still tolerable. To demonstrate this, I would use a term tolerance of adverse influences which does not disturb validity of ideal being and therefore functionality of the mechanism. In the case of societal natural mechanism this is a tolerance of decaying influences such as non-compliance with rules, anti-social behavior, influence of foreign cultural elements, and so on. In case of family, this concerns tolerance of interference from outside which in case of lower intensity disruption can cause harm but if higher intensity is reached the family mechanism is put out of function.
While in technical mechanisms limits of their functionality are usually clear, high social mechanisms can have moral limits, which if crossed, the mechanism no longer acts morally. This for example applies to a market, which may spread illicit drugs or prostitution or reach areas where it projects bad influence, like in politics and education; and must be therefore restricted. Natural principles are neither good nor bad. They are what they are; cannot be different and cannot be changed. The Bible nicely explains this in a verse about weed and wheat, in which the farmer bans his aides from weeding out because the wheat would be damaged by that (See 3). The limits can only be imposed from the outside, but the system itself cannot be modified.
We do not know the natural laws that can not manifest providing conditions in the sphere of real being are not prepared for them. Noone knew in advance how people would behave when they are given allowances for children. Only practical experience confirmed that those who mostly responded to this incentive were classes of people who are exluded, who only had children to collect their allowance and who cared little for their upbringing. Marx thought that working people will themselves manage their state; they will identify themselves with it, and will selflessly work for it. It did not happen because Marx and his followers failed to understand function of natural mechanisms. They also did not comprehend that people cannot be changed according to a plan of some communists, and that his imperfect nature is unchangeable. Therefore, mutations of social order are only a pilot project. It only documents that when it comes to existences of an ideal being, especially patterns of human society which were not historically tested and are unknown to us, hardly anything can be learned about them in advance even though they can be understood intuitively and can be subjected to examination.
To comprehend functional social mechanism one has to understand what is subject to real being and what is not. At the same time it is desirable to understand that just like in the case of construction of a combustion engine; existence of an ideal being requires conditions for its function. Externally human communities always (beyond human consciousness and options) follow the laws imposed by an ideal being; but these can then treat a man as an object that failed to adapt and thus can be written off from the database of living creatures.
The question of whethera realbeingmust always besubordinate toan ideal,in order toexist and function, requires more evidenceto be answered. Nevertheless, based on experience of mankind Idare tosuggestthat the segment of the real being which is not controlled by an ideal onecan existonly temporarily,as a graduallydissolving residue, or as a sailboatwithout a rudder which is chaoticallytossedin the windsuntilit eventually hitsa rocksomewhere.Yetworld is oftenseen as chaos in the narrowsegmentof limitedexperience orknowledge.It is even said that chaos accompaniesmatter, and that many things exist despite beingchaotic. I wouldonce again use an exampleof the market mechanism,or anyexample from the history of natural selection), which in a limitedview can be seenasuncontrolledchaos; and I believe that even theignorantpeoplewho oncebelieved inMarx,could followthe idea thatman is capable ofimposing order on this economicchaos.Infact, the market does have its own order. Chaosonly manifests in thelower layer characterized by arealbeing,but higherstructures do not allow chaos to spread upwards and set limits to it. Therefore, I believethat everything that existsin time anddoes not expireis infinitely repeated(i.e. humanlife)has superiororder; and we are only lacking informationwhich would allow us full understanding of it.
Unlike mostareasof the material world including mathematicsand geometry where the objects ofrealbeing are clearlysubject tonaturallaws,inhuman societysuperficialviews prevail that this is indeed not true and there is„freedomin chaos„, meaning totallyindependent action, controlled by nothing.Yes, this is indeed true to some extent.However,eventhoughthereare ceratin limitsto freedom ofexpression,it also has adeterminatingcomponent andisusuallyrestricted by the rules of society, because in case of transgression of these rules true chaos results which usually means extinction. Unlike mostlaws of physics certain restrictions exist inhuman society; rules therefore do not applyabsolutely,but havetolerance, i.e. are valid in certain range. This is is especially true in case of freedom.Human societyis not like acombustionengine,strictlysubject to inexorablenaturallaws;it allows certain level ofchaosin which it can operate without signs ofextinction.Some lowerlevels of an idealbeingmay or may not be used by men.This oftenleads to opinionthat evenbeings which show characteristics of ideal beings are subject to transformation, everything is in motion andidealrelationships do not exist. Dialecticalsocontributed to this as it depictsworld as constant changebased onclashes. Through attentiveanalysis, however, we reach conclusionthat idealprinciple waseitherusedor not;not that the principleshaveperhapschanged.Thuschangesoccur as a result of manipulation of ideal andrealbeings, whilst the ideal remain asimmutableblocks, building stones, which after demolitionof a construction can be either reusedordiscarded.Dialectic does not existwithin naturallaws.